Oral Health

Defined as a standard of health of the oral and related tissues which enables an individual to eat, speak and socialize without active disease, discomfort or embarrassment and which contributes to the general well being.

Current Practice Of Oral Health Care

  • Very little attention.
  • Low in list of priorities of health problems.
  • Haphazard growth in terms of articulate organization and management.
  • Majority of both public and private services located in urban areas.
  • 90% of population have no contact with any modern form of oral health care.
  • Majority of patients present with late stages of oral diseases.
  • Poor prognosis and expensive to treat.
  • Oral health not in primary level of health care in the country.
  • Dentist population ratio 1: 100,000
  • Oral health manpower in all categories among the poorest in the world.
  • Oral health delivery confined to quacks.

Key Determinants Of The State Of Oral Health

  • Widespread poverty and underdevelopment
  • Malnourishment
  • Compromised immune system
  • Increased use of tobacco and alcohol
  • Changes in dietary habits
  • Cultural practices.

Priority Oral Diseases


Cancrum Oris (Noma)
Cancrum Oris

  • Almost forgotten as an oral disease in the western world.
  • Very common in African children.
  • Annual incidence figure 20 cases per 100,000 within vulnerable age group.
  • 90% die without coming in contact with any modern health care except traditional
  • With increasing poverty prevalence likely to increase.

Oral Manifestation of HIV/AIDS

Pseudomembraneous Candidiasis
Pseudomembraneous Candidiasis

  • Highest prevalence of infection in Africa.
  • Oral manifestations such as fungal infections, narcotizing gingivitis are widespread.

Oral Cancer


Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squmous Cell Carcinoma

  • Prevalence on the increase.
  • Annual incidence of 25 cases/100,000 patients above 40 year.
  • Increasing use of tobacco and alcohol contributing factors to increase incidence.
  • Relative survival rates lowest of major cancers. Only half number of persons diagnosed with oral cancer survive 5 years after diagnosis.

Maxillofacial Trauma


Cow Horn Injury
Cow Horn Injury

  • Armed robbery attacks.
  • Road Traffic Accidents.
  • Religious and communal riots.
  • Human and Animal causes